Education

CBD vs. THC: What’s the Difference?

This article was written by Leafly Staff and published on Leafly. The original article can be found here.

Cannabis consumers have long prized potency (a high THC content) as one of the main factors that makes a particular strain more desirable. Though traditional demand for THC has caused an oversaturation of high-potency products, many consumers are starting to prefer less intense products that are lower in THC and higher in the non-intoxicating compound called cannabidiol (CBD).

THC and CBD are both cannabinoids derived from the cannabis plant, but they’re different in many ways that may influence your next dispensary purchase.

What Are High-CBD Cannabis Strains?

CBD is typically the second-most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis, but this isn’t always the case. A strain may deliver CBD and THC in the following ratios:

  • High THC, low CBD (e.g.,10-30% THC, trace amounts of CBD)
  • Balanced CBD/THC (e.g., 5-15% THC and CBD)
  • High CBD, low THC (e.g., 5-20% CBD, THC under 5%)

High-CBD strains tend to deliver very clear-headed, functional effects without the euphoric high associated with high-THC strains. They’re typically preferred by consumers who are extremely sensitive to the side effects of THC (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, dizziness). A high-CBD strain would also be a great choice for someone needing to medicate throughout the day to control pain, inflammation, anxiety, or other chronic conditions.

Balanced CBD/THC strains will be a little more euphoric than CBD-dominant strains, though they’re much less likely to induce anxiety, paranoia, and other negative side effects. Strains like these tend to be the most effective for pain relief, and they’re also well-suited for THC-sensitive consumers who’d like a mellow buzz.

CBD strains can be consumed just as you would THC strains. You can smoke or vaporize CBD-rich flower, eat a CBD-infused edible, swallow a CBD oil capsule, apply a CBD lotion, or use a CBD tincture sublingually. Hemp products also contain CBD, though it is a less efficient source and lacks the beneficial chemical diversity of cannabis-derived CBD products (more on that here).

What Are the Medical Benefits of CBD?

The list of conditions CBD may help with is ever-expanding. Here are some of the most common conditions and symptoms patients combat with CBD:

  • Epilepsy and seizure disorders
  • Pain and inflammation
  • PTSD and anxiety
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Opioid withdrawal

Though clinical and anecdotal evidence suggests CBD’s benefits in managing different conditions, it became most famous for treating a rare and debilitating form of pediatric epilepsy. Dravet’s Syndrome is notoriously resistant to current approved treatment methods. Sufferers are plagued by seizures, often up to hundreds a day, that worsen as they age and can be life-threatening. Currently, treatment methods include having the child wear an eyepatch, specialized diets, and brain surgery, but all have mixed success rates.

One of the earliest success stories involves a young girl named Charlotte who was given an ingestible oil derived from Charlotte’s Web, a CBD strain that was specifically developed to provide her with all the benefits of the drug without the high. In less than two years, Charlotte went from a monthly seizure count of 1,200 to about three. Other success stories followed and more parents have begun to speak out, particularly parents who are desperate for access to this life-saving treatment.

This video highlights Charlotte and her disorder, as well as the promising treatment of high-CBD strains to help alleviate her symptoms.

CBD has no lethal dose or known serious medical side effects, but it is still federally illegal. Furthermore, the idea of using cannabis-derived compounds for pediatric conditions remains a touchy subject in a culture where cannabis has been stigmatized.

Although THC is best known for its mind-altering euphoria, it too has important medical benefits. There’s some overlap in what CBD and THC can treat, but THC is particularly effective in relieving nausea, appetite loss, insomnia, among other symptoms. Many patients find that a balance of CBD and THC offers the best symptom relief as the two work together synergistically.

What Are Some High-CBD Strains I Can Try?

Keep in mind that CBD levels may vary from crop to crop—even from plant to plant. However, below are some strains that have been bred to contain higher CBD levels, so they might be a good place to start. Check the map on their strain page to see if these are sold at a dispensary near you. We also recommend checking with dispensaries about the specifics of their strains’ CBD levels. It’s always a good idea to purchase only lab-tested products that clearly state the CBD/THC levels so you know what kind of experience to expect.

Congress Approves a Bill to Make CBD Legal at Federal Level

This article was written by Lisa L. Gill and published on Consumer Reports. You can view the original article here.

Passage of the 2018 Farm Bill clarifies CBD legal status and lets U.S. farmers grow hemp, but some regulatory questions remain

A sweeping agriculture bill passed by Congress on Wednesday gives the legislative nod needed to make CBD (cannabidiol), one of hemp’s byproducts, legal at the federal level.

That’s good news for consumers who use or want to try various products infused with CBD, which is nonpsychoactive. And it could soon mean more products for consumers on retail store shelves. The bill also allows farmers to legally grow industrial hemp.

Although consumers have been able to purchase CBD products in the 47 states where CBD sales are permitted, the federal legality question has loomed. (See map below.)

That’s because the Drug Enforcement Agency previously classified CBD as a “Schedule I” controlled substance, meaning the federal government contended that it had no known medical value and risked being highly addictive, similar to drugs such as LSD and heroin.

But times have changed, and many in the medical community and in the public say that CBD can be potentially helpful for certain health conditions. Most notably, it has clearly proved to help reduce the number of seizures in people who suffer from two devastating forms of epilepsy. The FDA approved the CBD-based drug Epidiolex earlier this year.

Thousands of CBD products can be found online and in retail stores. They include oils and tinctures, food and candy, even coffee and other drinks.

A growing body of preliminary research suggests that CBD has properties that improve health. For example, it appears to act as an anti-inflammatory, which in theory could help with arthritis and some forms of pain. And it has many effects on brain chemistry, which could ease anxiety and depression, among other conditions. Still, some consumers were in limbo, wondering whether the products were legal and whether they were breaking the law when buying them.

The full 2018 Farm Bill is a package of programs estimated to cost $876 billion over 10 years. It touches almost every aspect of farming, food, and food production in the U.S.

The Senate passed the bill on Tuesday. Now it goes to President Donald Trump, who is expected to sign it.

“My Hemp Farming Act as included in the Farm Bill will not only legalize domestic hemp, but it will also allow state departments of agriculture to be responsible for its oversight,” Mitch McConnell, (R-Ky.) said in a statement.

The bill allows each state to decide whether it wants to okay the sale of CBD products from hemp within its borders. And by changing how marijuana is defined in the Controlled Substances Act so that it doesn’t include hemp, the bill effectively removes CBD derived from hemp from the DEA’s list of controlled substances. Marijuana and hemp are variations of the Cannabis sativa L. plant.

Legalizing hemp in the U.S. could mean “doubling or tripling domestic cultivation within the next year,” Colleen Keahey, president of the Hemp Industry Association, told CR in an earlier interview.

And by removing CBD hemp from the controlled substances list, companies will be able to legally transport it across state lines, allowing for interstate commerce, says Jonathan Miller, who led the lobbying efforts for hemp legalization as legal counsel of the U.S. Hemp Roundtable, a group of 60 CBD producers.

A greater variety of products on store shelves could be good for people like K. C. Ferrill, 64, of Pendleton, Ind., who says taking CBD has been “life changing,” allowing him to drop the antidepressants that he took for 25 years to quell anxiety and depression.

Ferrill says he was “flabbergasted” when Indiana allowed retailers to sell CBD, and he feels more secure about purchasing it now that it appears the federal government is legalizing it as well.

A Consumer Reports nationally representative survey from last month showed that 15 percent of adult Americans had tried CBD and a majority (83 percent) said it helped, to some degree, the symptoms they were treating.

What Is Hemp?

Industrial hemp is a type of cannabis, defined by the federal government as having THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive compound found in cannabis, of 0.3 percent or less. That amount has not been shown to make a person feel “high.” In fact, some researchers and physicians argue that having even a small amount of THC helps CBD work better in the body because of what’s known as the “entourage effect.”

For comparison, some marijuana products contain amounts of THC that are up to 100 times more potent.

Hemp, one of the oldest known crops cultivated by humans, has a long and twisted history in the U.S., often conflated with marijuana and banned as a crop in 1937. But hemp can produce hundreds if not thousands of consumer goods, including fiber, paper, textiles, rope, and even biofuel.

From Tobacco to Hemp

Today’s bill makes hemp a “commodity” crop for farmers, who will now be able to obtain crop insurance, financing, loans, and other federal and state benefits to help them grow and sell it, says Miller.

That could help farmers like Brent Cornett in London, Ky.

For seven generations, he and his family have farmed at the foot of the Appalachian mountains, growing produce including tomatoes and corn. But the family always relied on tobacco as a major cash crop.

Cigarette smoking has dropped sharply in the U.S. and abroad, and the demand and value for tobacco has taken a nosedive, Cornett says. At the same time, U.S. farmers have suffered recently from the U.S. trade war with China, which imports U.S. agricultural products.

Four years ago, as part of a state agricultural department pilot program, Cornett decided to try industrial hemp as a new crop. So far it’s been successful. He says that even an average yield can earn profits similar to an excellent tobacco crop.

But until the Farm Bill passed, “one of the biggest risks [was] the lack of crop insurance,” Cornett says, which protects against poor and unpredictable weather conditions. All other agricultural commodities—corn, soybeans, and tobacco—have federal crop insurance, he adds.

With the passage of the bill, Cornett says he’ll breath a sigh of relief. “Where we are today is because of income from tobacco,” he says, but “with the outlook on tobacco, I would be worried if we didn’t have the prospects of the hemp to replace it with.”


CBD Still Faces FDA Scrutiny

While hemp production may eventually be a boon for U.S. farmers, CBD may still face legal hurdles, even with the passage of the Farm Bill, says Miller, legal counsel for the U.S. Hemp Roundtable

Since 2015, the FDA has cracked down on dozens of companies selling CBD products online for making unsupported health claims. It noted in letters to the companies that CBD can’t be sold as a supplement because it was introduced into clinical trials as an investigative new drug. And the FDA recently approved a prescription drug called Epidiolex whose main ingredient is CBD.

When CR asked the FDA how it plans to regulate CBD under the new Farm Bill, agency representatives said they couldn’t comment on pending legislation.

While regulators plot their next moves, retailers and manufacturers are gearing up.

Michael DeAngelis, a CVS spokesman, says the drugstore is continuing to monitor how the legislation evolves on federal and state levels before the chain stocks CBD products.

Joseph Dowling, the CEO of CV Sciences, the manufacturer of PlusCBD Oil, says the bill’s passage should make way for more retail sales throughout the U.S. “We believe 2018 Farm Bill legislation, including the provisions pertaining to hemp and hemp-derived products, will provide the legal framework for products like PlusCBD Oil to be placed onto store shelves,” he says.

Understanding Cannabis Testing: A Guide to Cannabinoids and Terpenes

This article was written by Baily Rahn and published on Leafly. You can find the original article here.

As the medical and recreational cannabis markets continue their steady climb toward legitimacy, the demand for lab-tested products climbs alongside it. Cannabis testing is the scientific process of measuring different chemicals and compounds in the product. They can measure beneficial constituents like cannabinoids and terpenes, or not-so-desirable contaminants such as pesticides, mold, and residual solvents. Research is now showing that strains exhibit different compound profiles, unique “fingerprints” built by a specific composition of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Leafly has teamed up with Steep Hill Halent to bring you these Strain Fingerprints, which help to show how each strain is, to an extent, a special snowflake. Looking at these graphics, you may recognize some chemical compounds like THC and CBD, but many people are not sure what other cannabinoids and terpenes are or how they can affect you. Fear not, curious consumers: this guide to Steep Hill’s Strain Fingerprints will walk you through it.

Steep Hill strain fingerprint for Sour Diesel

Cannabinoids

THC (∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol)

  • Strongly psychoactive (induces a euphoric high)
  • Most cannabis strains are bred to contain a high THC content while other cannabinoids occur only in trace amounts
  • Demonstrates promise in treating painnauseasleep and stress disorders, and appetite loss
  • Can cause anxiety and paranoia in some individuals
  • Boiling point: 315 °F (157 °C)

THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)

  • Strongly psychoactive (induces a euphoric high)
  • More strongly psychoactive than THC, but duration of effects is about half as long
  • Typically occurs in only trace amounts in cannabis
  • Pronounced energetic effects
  • Found to effectively counter anxietystress, and panic disorders without suppressing emotion
  • Reduces tremors associated with Alzheimer’sParkinson’s, and other neurological disorders
  • Diminishes appetite
  • Stimulates bone growth

CBD (Cannabidiol)

CBDV (Cannabidivarin)

  • Non-psychoactive (does not induce a euphoric high)
  • Demonstrates promise in treating seizures

CBG (Cannabigerol)

  • Non-psychoactive (does not induce a euphoric high)
  • Typically occurs in only trace amounts in cannabis
  • Found to stimulate brain cell and bone growth
  • Demonstrates promise as an anti-bacterial and anti-insomnia medicine

CBC (Cannabichromene)

  • Non-psychoactive (does not induce a euphoric high)
  • Typically occurs in only trace amounts in cannabis
  • Found to be about 10 times more effective than CBD in treating anxietyand stress
  • Anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties
  • Stimulates bone growth
  • Boiling point: 428 °F (220 °C)

CBN (Cannabinol)

  • Mildly to non-intoxicating (does not induce a euphoric high)
  • Typically occurs in only trace amounts in cannabis
  • Occurs as a result of THC degradation
  • Most sedating of all the cannabinoids
  • Demonstrates promise in treating insomniaglaucoma, and pain
  • Boiling point: 365 °F (185 °C)

Terpenes

Linalool

Caryophyllene

  • Rich, spicy aroma
  • Also found in Thai basil, cloves, and black pepper
  • Anti-septic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory properties
  • Boiling point: 320 °F (160 °C)

Myrcene

  • Also found in mango, hops, bay leaves, lemongrass, and eucalyptus
  • Sedatingrelaxing effects
  • Demonstrates promise in treating spasmsinflammationpain, and insomnia
  • Reduces resistance across the blood-brain barrier which facilitates access of other chemicals
  • Enhances psychoactive effects of other compounds such as THC
  • Boiling point: 334 °F (168 °C)

Limonene

Pinene

Humulene

  • Aroma similar to hops
  • Also found in hops and coriander
  • Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties
  • Diminishes appetite
  • Boiling point: 388 °F (198 °C)

Terpinolene

Phytol

  • Unlike most terpenes, Phytol’s aroma is very subtle
  • Also found in aged green tea
  • A result of chlorophyll breakdown
  • Sleep aid
  • Boiling point: 400 °F (204 °C)

15 Cannabis Terpenes and Their Health Benefits (Research-Backed)

This article was written by Helena and published by Greencamp. The original article can be found here.

You might have noticed that not all cannabis strains smell the same. Pine, berry, mint… There are more than a few distinctive fragrances in cannabis.

Cannabis has a unique smell. Some people find it unpleasant and overwhelming, while most weed enthusiasts find it very calming and enjoyable. Just like any other plant, pot has components that are responsible for its unique aroma and flavor.

Those components are terpenes, aromatic molecules secreted inside the tiny resin glands of cannabis flowers.

Terpenes produce a citrusy aroma in some strains, fruity and sweet notes in others and, while some may smell and taste like lavender, others can be more earthy and pungent. Certain strains even smell like cheese. But, it’s not all about the smell.

Terpenes also produce a wide range of medical effects and there are at least 80-100 terpenes unique to cannabis—the combination of terpenes, cannabinoids and optimal dosage is responsible for the entire success of medical cannabis.

What are terpenes and what is their use?

Terpenes are organic chemicals constituents of essential oils produced by most plants, and even some animals such as swallowtail butterflies and termites. Terpenes are volatile aromatic molecules—molecules that evaporate easily.

These substances have two very important roles in every plant’s life: They are the primary component of resin and they protect the flowers from predators.

Terpenes are used in the production of essential oils, in natural health and beauty products, in the fragrance and aromatherapy industry, as well as in conventional and alternative medicine. They are also synthetically created for use as flavoring and food additives.

Here are a few more fun facts about terpenes: Natural rubber is made of them, as are many steroids.

Maple syrup contains about 300 different terpenes, which is why it’s so yummy.

But what about cannabis?

Terpenes give each strain its unique smell and taste. Not only that but they also enhance the health effects of cannabis by influencing how we process cannabinoids.

Let’s explore this in more detail.

How do terpenes work with cannabinoids?

What we usually consume from cannabis are flowers.

And just like all other flowers, cannabis flowers have their own recognizable scent.

As I’ve mentioned earlier, there are about 120 terpenes in cannabis.

They coexist there with cannabinoids like THC and CBD (sometimes even working with them to better our experience), but it’s important to know that terpenes are not psychoactive like THC.

Some of these terpenes can be found in other plants, while others are exclusive to cannabis.

But, it’s not all about the smell, as terpenes also have many therapeutic properties: They interact with our endocannabinoid system and assist cannabinoids in entering the bloodstream through a process called the entourage effect.

Myrcene, for instance, increases cell permeability and allows cannabinoids to be absorbed faster than they would get on their own.

Limonene is responsible for increasing serotonin levels, a neurotransmitter in charge of our mood. This explains why different strains may have different effects on our mood. The whole cannabis experience is suddenly starting to make sense, right?

Terpenes and the “Entourage Effect” explained

The “Entourage Effect” is a term coined by S. Ben-Shabat and Raphael Mechoulam back in 1998, to represent the biological synergy of cannabinoids and other compounds like flavonoids and terpenes. (1)

Simply put, when terpenes work with cannabinoids (a likely scenario when consuming a whole plant product), they form a synergy that creates stronger and better effects than both would achieve on their own.

This symbiosis between cannabinoids and terpenes is what gives cannabis its special powers, as it improves the absorption of cannabinoids, overcomes bacterial defense mechanisms and minimizes side effects.

Research behind the medical properties of terpenes

Some terpenes are very effective in relieving stress, others are great when you need to relax, and some are awesome for boosting focus. There are many options here, as you’ll have a chance to see in the next few minutes.

Take myrcene, one of the most abundant terpenes in cannabis, which is responsible for inducing sleep. Or limonene, the citrusy messenger in charge for making us feel uplifted after smoking a joint.

In recent years, cannabis terpenes have become an important subject of scientific research.

It was Jürg Gertsch who first noticed the ability of beta-caryophyllene to bind to CB2 receptors, calling it “a dietary cannabinoid”. (2)

He also concluded that all green vegetables that contain this terpene are extremely beneficial for human use.

Shortly after that, Dr. Ethan Russo published an article in 2011, in the British Journal of Pharmacology, and pointed out to the therapeutic properties of terpenes in cannabis, especially those missing in cannabis products that only contain a single molecule (CBD oil as a primary example). (3)

Dr. Russo also described the cannabinoid-terpene interaction as a “synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections”.

Further research discovered that terpenes, terpenoids, and cannabinoids all have the ability to kill respiratory pathogens, for instance, the MRSA virus.

However, that’s not even half of the story. Terpenes have a lot more health effects which we’ll go into next.

List of 15 most commonly found terpenes in cannabis

Since there are around 120 terpenes in cannabis, it would take us a while to go over each of them in great detail. Instead, here are some of the most abundant terpenes in common medical cannabis products.

1. Myrcene

Myrcene is the most abundant terpene in cannabis, which is where it’s mostly found in nature. In fact, one study showed that myrcene makes up as much as 65% of total terpene profile in some strains. (4)

The smell of Myrcene often reminds us of earthy, musky notes, similar to cloves. It also has a fruity, red grape-like aroma.

Strains that contain 0.5% of this terpene are usually indicas, packed full of sedative effects. Myrcene is also supposedly useful in reducing inflammation and chronic pain, which is why it’s usually recommended as a supplement during cancer treatments.

Strains that are rich in myrcene are Skunk XL, White Widow, and Special Kush.

Bonus tip: If you want to experience a stronger buzz from marijuana, eat a mango about 45 minutes before smoking. Mango contains a significant amount of myrcene, so eating it before consuming cannabis will strengthen the effects of THC and increase the absorption rate of other cannabinoids.

2. Limonene

Limonene is the second most abundant terpene in cannabis, but not all strains necessarily have it.

As the name itself says, limonene produces a citrusy smell that resembles lemons, which is no surprise as all citrus fruits contain large amounts of this compound. Limonene is used in cosmetics and also in cleaning products.

When it comes to its therapeutic purposes, limonene is a mood-booster and a stress-crusher. Researchers also found it to have anti-fungal and antibacterial properties, with one study even announcing that limonene may play a role in reducing tumor size. (5)

Getting a hold of this terpene is easy — strains that have “lemon” or “sour” in their name are usually rich in limonene.

Some good examples of these are O.G. Kush, Sour Diesel, Super Lemon Haze, Durban Poison, Jack Herer, and Jack the Ripper.

3. Linalool

If you’ve ever wondered what makes cannabis smell the way it does, myrcene and linalool are to blame. With its spicy and floral notes, this terpene is one of the most abundant in the majority of strains out there and, together with myrcene produces that pungent and spicy scent.

Linalool can also be found in lavender, mint, cinnamon, and coriander. What’s interesting is that just like those aromatic herbs, linalool also produces sedation and relaxation.

Patients suffering from arthritis, depression, seizures, insomnia and even cancer, have all found relief with this amazing terpene.

Some well-known linalool strains are Amnesia Haze, Special Kush, Lavender, LA Confidential, and OG Shark.

4. Caryophyllene

Best known for its spicy and peppery note, caryophyllene is also found in black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and spices like oregano, basil, and rosemary.

Beta-caryophyllene binds to CB2 receptors, which makes it an ingredient in anti-inflammatory topicals and creams. Caryophyllene is the only terpene that binds to cannabinoid receptors.

Besides its analgesic and anxiolytic properties, some studies have found that caryophyllene has a very promising role in alcohol rehabilitation.

A group of scientists performed research on mice and found that this terpene reduces the voluntary intake of alcohol. They even recommended caryophyllene for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms. (6)

Strains like Super Silver Haze, Skywalker and Rock Star are all rich in caryophyllene.

5. Alpha-pinene and Beta-pinene

These twin terpenes smell like pine trees which is also where they can be found in large amounts. Other plants rich in pinene include rosemary, orange peels, basil, parsley and cannabis, of course.

Like many other, pinene terpenes have an anti-inflammatory effect on humans.

They also help improve the airflow and respiratory functions, while also helping reduce memory loss related to excessive THC consumption. I know that this can sound weird because we’re talking about cannabis, but if the strain is rich in alpha and beta pinene, it can actually help with asthma.

Pinene is also beneficial for patients suffering from arthritis, Crohn’s Disease, and even cancer.

Strains that are great sources of pinene are Jack Herer, Strawberry Cough, Blue Dream, Island Sweet Skunk, Dutch Treat, and Romulan.

6. Alpha-bisabolol

Alpha-bisabolol (also known as levomenol and bisabolol) has a pleasant floral aroma and is also present in chamomile flower and candeia tree.

This terpene found its use primarily in the cosmetics industry, but lately, it has caught the attention of researchers for its supposed medical benefits.

Alpha-bisabolol proved to be effective in treating bacterial infections and wounds and is a great antioxidant with anti-irritation and analgesic properties.

It can be found in strains like Harle-Tsu, Pink Kush, Headband, OG Shark, and ACDC.

7. Eucalyptol

Also known as cineole, eucalyptol is the primary terpene of the eucalyptus tree. It produces minty tones but most cannabis strains only have it in traces. On average, it makes up around 0.06% of the complete cannabis terpene profile.

Eucalyptol is extensively used in cosmetics as well as medicine. When it comes to its medical value, eucalyptol relieves pain but also slows down the growth of bacteria and fungus.

Although it is still in the early stages of research, this terpene has shown some promising effects on Alzheimer’s as well.

You can get your daily dose of eucalyptol with strains like Super Silver Haze and Headband.

8. Trans-nerolidol

This one is a secondary terpene, found mostly in flowers like jasmine, lemongrass, and tea tree oil. Its smell is a mixture of rose, lemon and apple tones, and can be described in general as both woody and citrusy.

Trans-nerolidol is best known for its antiparasitic, antioxidant, antifungal, anticancer and antimicrobial properties.

Strains like Jack Herer, Sweet Skunk, and Skywalker OG are all rich in nerolidol.

9. Humulene

Humulene is the first terpene found in hops and its aroma is made up of earthy, woody and spicy notes.

Besides cannabis, it can be also found in clove, sage, and black pepper.

It has many medical properties. Also, it proved to be effective in suppressing appetite, which could make it a potential weight loss tool.

Furthermore, like many other terpenes mentioned above, humulene also reduces inflammation, relieves pain and fights bacterial infections.

You can find humulene in strains like White Widow, Headband, Girl Scout Cookies, Sour Diesel, Pink Kush and Skywalker OG.

10. Delta 3 Carene

This terpene is found in a number of plants, like rosemary, basil, bell peppers, cedar and pine. Its aroma is sweet and resembles the smell of cypress.

When it comes to its medical properties, Delta 3 carene seems to be beneficial in healing broken bones, which is a beacon of hope for patients suffering from osteoporosis, arthritis and even fibromyalgia.

Interestingly enough, Delta 3 carene stimulates our memory and helps with memory retention. This is a major point in finding a cure for Alzheimer’s Disease.

11. Camphene

The best way to describe the smell of camphene is fir needles, musky earth, and damp woodlands. Camphene’s aroma is often mistaken with myrcene, which is that trademark marijuana smell as most of us know it.

Camphene has great potential in medicine. When mixed with vitamin C, it becomes a powerful antioxidant and it is widely used in conventional medicine as a topical for skin issues like eczema and psoriasis.

Its greatest potential, however, lies in its ability to lower the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, both of which are connected to many cardiovascular diseases.

Camphene is present in Ghost OG, Strawberry Banana and Mendocino Purps.

12. Borneol

Borneol, with its herbal minty scent, can be found in herbs like rosemary, mint, and camphor.

This terpene is a good natural insect repellent, which makes it great for preventing diseases like the West Nile virus, which is passed by ticks, fleas, mosquitoes etc. One study even found that borneol kills breast cancer cells. (7)

Strains high in borneol are Amnesia Haze, Golden Haze, K13 Haze.

13. Terpineol

The aroma of terpineol can be described as floral-like, reminiscent of lilacs, apple blossom, and a hint of lemon. Terpineol tastes like anise and mint.

Terpineol has a pleasant scent, similar to lilac, and is a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and food.

It is a well-known relaxant and is usually the one responsible for the notorious couch-lock effect which is often connected with indica strains. Medical benefits of terpineol also include antibiotic and antioxidant properties.

It can be found Girl Scout Cookies, Jack Herer, and OG Kush.

14. Valencene

This terpene got its name from sweet Valencia oranges — where it’s present in large amounts. With its sweet citrusy aroma and flavor, it’s also used as an insect repellant.

Even though we don’t know much about valencene, we do know that it can be found in strains like Tangie and Agent Orange.

15. Geraniol

Besides cannabis, geraniol can be found in lemons and tobacco. Its smell resembles a mixture of rose grass, peaches, and plums.

It’s usually used in aromatic bath products and body lotions.

Geraniol has shown a lot of potential as a neuroprotectant and antioxidant.

It’s present in strains like Amnesia Haze, Great White Shark, Afghani, Headband, Island Sweet Skunk, OG Shark and Master Kush.

References

  1. Ben-Shabat S, Fride E, Sheskin T, Tamiri T, Rhee MH, Vogel Z, Bisogno T, De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R; An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity; European Journal of Pharmacology; July 1998; 353(1):23-31
  2. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S, Racz I, Chen JZ, Xie XQ, Altmann KH, Karsak M, Zimmer A; Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; July 2008; 105(26):9099-9104
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